Palm Oil Mill Operation, processing and process , production quality control, effluent disposals and maintenance course

  • To acquire overall broad knowledge of fundamentals and practices of palm oil FFB grading and analysis, mill productions, operations, managements and process quality control.
  • To enhance, develop and provide a suitable platform to increase work productivity
  • To learn overall process quality control in order to achieve high oil and kernel extractions for production cost reduction.
  • To appreciate the significance of process planning to achieve smooth running of mill and to ensure the maximum/optimum productivity and with minimum breakdowns.
  • To educate qualified professionals to solve problem encountered during processing of palm oil.

Palm Oil Mill Operation and Processing - Module 1
Target : Introduction to facts and informations for better understanding of Mill operations ,palm oil processing and quality control to increase OER and KER.
  • Origin of oil palm tree.
  • Oil palm nursery
  • Anatomy of oil palm tree.
  • Anatomy of palm fruits
  • History of palm tree
  • Fresh Fruit Bunch composition
  • Type of fruits-Tenera,Dura,pisifera
  • Fruitlets to bunch Ratio
  • FFB and Fruitlets Quality Report
  • Harvesting,Transportation and handling of FFB.
  • Health and Nutritional facts of palm oil for consumption
  • Field practices and Management for FFB
  • Plantation practices to boost yield, OER and KER.
  • Workforce and manpower –attitude,dedication,work quality,Trained etc..
  • Uses of palm oil
  • Video on oil palm tree.
  • Video on environmental and oil palm matters.(PORIM-AOCS)
  • Palm Products and General Discussions

Palm Oil Mill Operation and Processing - Module 2
Target : Advantages & disadvantages of conventional sterilization with continous sterilization 
  • Introduction to modern palm oil Mill (Video)
  • Model Of Mills
  • System Of Processing –Conventional Methods -Ilustrations
  • Mill Process Stations,Flow Diagrams,Process Charts
  • Administrative Office Functions,Duties and Responsibility
  • Weighbridge -Computerised / Manual ,Purpose,Calibration,Yearly Inspections
           -Upkeep,Lightning Protection,Operation,Procedures
           -Issues on malpractice and control.etc..Rain/Flood and Load Cells.
  • Bunch Reception –FFB grading station,FFB categorization and                               Analysis ,Hiping up and long storage of FFB. 
  • Loading Ramp- Design,Operation, Functions and capacity etc
  • Filling of FFB into cages– FIFO system,Level of FFB..etc
  • Total number of cages is essential to avoid delay in processing and to achieve mill throughput.
  • Transportation of FFB cages to sterilizers– Use of Captains,Tractors,Bob Cat.
  • Sterilization Plant—Sterilizer Vessels- Design,Operations,Functions .
  • Sterilization Techniques-Single,Double,Treble peak systems Automatic or Manual operation.
  • Sterilization Charts,Time Records, charging and discharging of steam and cages records.
  • Blowdown and blowoff Chambers, Fat Pit — Operations and Functions.
  • Safe operating procedures and awareness. (Safety)
  • Importants of educated trained workers to avoid any major accidents.
  • Weight loss during sterilization — Moisture Loss – Results and Reports
  • Improper sterilization causes High Oil Loss — Profit Loss...
  • Continuous sterilization—Video illustration with comparison between conventional methods of sterilization . Advantages and disadvantages between the two methods.
  • Marshalling Yard –Captains,Crane or Tippler operations — Purpose etc..

Palm Oil Mill Operation and Processing - Module 3
Target : Coverage of operation & processing
  • Water Source— River,ponds,canals,streams etc..
  • Water treatment plant — Design,Operation,Functions,Machineries,Equipments,Chemicals.
  • Boiler Station — Design,Operation,Functions,Machineries,Types,Softeners, Deaerator,Feed Water Tank and Pumps.etc
  • Softners — Care and regeneration—Purpose.
  • Power House — Design,Operation,Functions,B.P.Vessel,Diesel Engines, Electrical Control and Distribution Panels and Turbine.
  • B.P.Vessel — Control Of Steam flow, Distribution and Pressure Levels.
  • Turbine — Boiler steam pressure fluctuations — Process Delay,Temperature Loss, Low Throughput.
  • Electrical Distribution Panel — Supply of Electricity and syncronisation.
  • Turbine — Video on Turbine Care.
  • General Discussions on main problems on co-ordination,breakdowns, uneven supply of steam and steam management.
  • Threshing Station — Design,Operation, Functions,Double Threshing, Disposal of Empty Bunches-Incinerater,Mulching etc.
  • Digestors — Design,Operation,Functions,Care,Stirring Arms, Temperatures and steam injection-Homogenisation etc.
  • Presses — Design,Operation,Functions,Care,Types,Temperature and Amps Control, Automatic or Manual operation etc.
  • Cake Breaking Conveyor — Design,Operation,Functions,R.P.M set, Overload,Cover — Moisture and Dust etc.
  • Deprecarper — Design,Operation,Functions,Size, Suction Fan air velocity adjustments.etc..
  • Boiler Fuel Storage Flatform — Care for fire hazards etc.
  • General Discussions ,comments ,upgrades,imporovements..etc..

Palm Oil Mill Operation and Processing - Module 4
Target : Coverage of operation & processing
  • Clarification Station (Without Decanter) — Design,Operation,Functions, Purpose, Reports .
           A) Vibrating Screen
           B) Crude Oil Tank
           C) Sand Trap
           D) Vertical Clarifier or Continuous Settling Tanks
           E) Sludge Tanks
           F) Sludge Vibrator G)Boiling Tank
           H) Clean Oil Tanks
           I) Sludge Separators
           J) Purifiers
           K) Vacuum Drier.
           L) Storage and Despatch Tanks.
  • Clarification Station (With Decanter System)— Design, Operation,Functions, Purpose, Reports. Additional — Decanter, Sludge Drier etc..
  • System Of Operation — Crude Oil or Sludge as Feed to Decanter. Advantages and Disadvantages. Reports.
  • Sludge Drier — Use Of Boiler Flue Gas for Drying –Production of Dried Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)— sold as solid Fetiliser.
  • Others — Disposal of liquid waste water,Temperature controls,Water Dilution,Hot Water,Vacuum levels,care,Maintenance, Wear and Tear of machinery Parts and replacements.
  • General Discussions and improvements with reference to Mill Audit.

Palm Oil Mill Operation and Processing - Module 5
Target : Coverage of operation & processing (kernel recovery plant)
  • Kernel Recovery Plant — Design,Operations,Functions,Purpose.
            A) Nut Bins,
            B) Nut Vibrator/distributor
            C) Nut Crackers-Types
            D) Hydrocyclone
            E) Mud Bath
            F) Kernel Driers
            G) Kernel Storage Bunkers and Kernel Despatch Tanks
  • Others — Mud Bath S.G control- Use Of Salt or Calcium,Nut Dryness, Cracking, Kernel Losses control, Kernel Overdrying. Adjustment and setting of vortex at Hydrocyclone. Water compartment leaks.Waste Water discharge etc.
  • Kernel Despatches
  • General Discussions and suggestions— Mill Audit Reference— Improvements and upgrades.
  • Main Problem Areas and solutions..
  • Video On Palm Oil Operation and Processing.

Palm Oil Mill Operation and Processing - Module 6
Target : Production report , mill visit, goal setting & course exam.
  • Summary Of Daily, Monthly,Yearly Production Report Review.
  • Action Plan,Assessments,improvements with reference to Mill audit Report..
  • Video on Palm Oil Mill Operation and Processing.
  • Goal Settings and implementations
  • Mill Visit—Practical approach and general Mill Audit.
  • Presentation of Test papers for participant assessment on Palm Oil Operation and processing.

Palm Oil Mill Process and Production Quality Control - Module 7
Target : Procedures and methods of quality control
  • Introduction
  • Function Of Quality Control
  • Laboratory Operations.
  • Role Of Mill Laboratory
  • Quality Analysis for palm oil
  • Mill Losses Control
  • Essential Laboratory Equipments-purpose and uses.
  • Record Books Maintained in Laboratory
  • Quality control on Mill Products
  • Methods and procedures of sampling,sampling points at mill,Frequency of sampling,Average sample volume for final testing at Laboratory.
  • Mill sampling and the importance.
  • Specific Sampling procedures for various stations at Mill
  • Test Methods—Solvent Extraction,Titration, Fibre analysis, Oil and Kernel Losses analysis, Samples from various stations, etc...
  • Sampling procedures for production oil,Despatch Oil and Palm Kernel Production and Despatches.
  • Visit to Laboratory to do Practical and General Discussions.

Palm Oil Mill Process and Production Quality Control - Module 8
Target : Procedures and methods of quality control at various stations

  • Water Treatment Plant — Sampling,Analysis,Results,Purpose,Actions -
          A) Raw / River Water,
          B) Cachment Ponds
          C) Pond Water
          D) Treated Tap Water
          E) Settling Tanks
          F) Sand Filter etc..
  • Boilers — Sampling,Analysis,Results,Purpose, Actions.Reports.
          A) Treated Softner water
          B) Deaerated Water
          C) Boiler Feed Water
          D) Boiler Water etc..
  • Sterilizers — Sampling,Analysis,Results,Purpose,Actions.
          A) Sterilizer Condensate
          B) Final Discharge to Effluent Ponds
  • Presses — Sampling,Analysis,Results,Purpose,Actions
          A) Presscake — Fibre and Nuts
          B) Crude Oil below presses.
  • Deprecarper — A) Cyclone Fibre collected at boiler platform
  • Clarification Station — Sampling,Analysis,Results,Purpose,Actions (without Decanter)
              A) Verical Clarifier Under flow sludge and oil.
              B) Separator Recovered oil and waste water.
              C) Boilout Tank discharge.
              D) Before and After Purifier Oil.
              E) Vacuum Drier Oil.
              F) Storage Tank Oil.
  • Clarification Station — A) Oil Phase B) Decanter Solid C) Drier Solid (With Decanter)
  • Kernel Plant — Sampling,Analysis,Results,Purpose,Actions
             A) Whole Nuts from Nut Bins
             B) Cracked Mixture from Ripple Miller
             C) Winnower Dry Shells
             D) Wet Shells and Wet Kernels from Mud bath or Hydrocyclone
             E) Wet Kernels from Kernel Drier. Dried Kernels from Kernel Drier Prior to Despatch.
  • General Discussions and Practical at Laboratory 
NOTE : For all the above Reports slides will be shown with examples and explanations.

Palm Oil Mill Process and Production Quality Control - Module 9 
Target : Procedures and methods of quality control at various stations

  • Palm Oil Analysis,Tests and Procedures:
           A) Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Test
           B) Moisture Test
           C) Dirt Test
           D) Peroxide Value Test etc..
           E) Other Tests

  • DOBI (Deterioration Of Bleachbility Index) Test:
          A) Methods
          B) Test Procedures
          C) DOBI Index
          D) Categorization Of DOBI Value

  • Field and Mill factors that causes for low DOBI Value.
  • Causes for the variations in DOBI Value between Mill and Refinery
  • Production and Despatch Kernel Analysis and Tabulations
  • Histogram Of Nuts — Size Variations and the relationship to KER.
  • Laboratory Chemicals and their health Hazards.
  • FFB Analysis Methods and Reports.
  • Summary Of Assesment and action Plan :
         A) Quality Control
         B) Process Control
         C) Fresh Fruit Bunches
         D) Pollution Control
  • Effluent Analysis and Control.(Reports)
  • Review Of All analysis in Full Detail.
  • Latest all analysis by fast and quick method with spectrophotometer will be introduced.

Palm Oil Mill Process and Production Quality Control - Module 10
Target : Detailed analysis and calculations to determine mill efficiency, etc

  • Production Process Reports :
           A) Prodution Oil Quality
           B) Kernel Production Quality
           C) Production Control - Oil Losses and Kernel Losses
           D) Quality Control on CPO at Press.
           E) Quality Control on Presscake
           F) Nut Breakage at Presses.
           G) Process Control Ripple Mills and Cracked Mixture.
           H) Process Control Nuts and Kernels
            I) Unstripped Bunches Count
           J) Stripped Bunches Catagarisation. (Tabulation)
  • Mill Oil Losses to FFB.
  • Mill Kernel Losses to FFB
  • Moisture Loss in FFB during Sterilization
  • Fruitlets to Bunch
  • Oil Extraction Efficiency
  • Kernel Extraction Efficiency.
  • Oil and Kernel Losses Calculations to FFB.
  • Ripeness influence :
           A) Oil to Mesocarp
           B) Oil to Bunch (FFB) ( Calculations)
           C) Kernel to Nut
           D) Kernel to Bunch(FFB)
  • Main Factors that influence and contribute to oil and kernel Extractions
  • In Palm Oil Mill— Rainfall, Soil Conditions,Sunshine,Fertiliser etc…….
  • General Discussions and comments.
  • Examination on Quality Control in Palm Oil Mill .

Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment- Module 11
Target : Effluent treatment analysis & various types of treatments
  • Introduction
  • Source of Palm Oil Effluent produce.
  • Types of Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatments— Malaysian Choice — Ponding System— Recommended and accepted by DOE and PORIM
  • Mill capacity and Quantity produce — Calculation of Pond Capacity – Number of ponds– High retention time– Low BOD.
  • Water course discharge or Land Appliation or Both DOE sandards.
  • List of waste parameters.(Reports & Tabulations)
  • Characteristics of Palm Oil Mill Effluents.(POME)
  • Collection and removal of oil prior to discharge to ponds at Long settling ponds or at settling tanks and Fat Pit and temperature controls.
  • Biological Digestion
  • Anaerobic Digestion
  • POME –Biological treatment system monitoring and testing.
  • DOE standards and parameters.
  • Direct discharge of POME into water course and the damage to Environment.
  • Sketch of standard ponding system with various ponds.(Drawing)
  • BOD reduction at various stages at pond. (Tabulation)
  • Effluent Ponds at Hillside — By Gravity flow etc.(Slide)

Solid Waste Disposal in palm oil mill - Module 12
Target : Methods of disposal and visit to mill and effluent treatment plant
  • Solid Waste in Palm Oil Mill: a) Empty Bunches b) Decanter Solids
  • Disposal Of Solid Wastes:
           A) Empty Bunches send to field for Mulching
           B) Some used as Boiler Fuel
           C) Burnt in Incinerators
  • Government rules and regulations for Effluent discharge to water course,Solid discharge to land and chimney smoke to atmosphere for palm oil mills in Malaysia.
  • Mill and Laboratory Visit : Practical Study.
  • General Discussions Goal Setting.
  • Motivating slide shows— Philosopy, YOU are the WINNER.
  • Finally Test and question Papers for evaluation.

Maintenance in palm oil mill - Module 13 (additional)
Target : Palm Oil Mill Machineries and Maintenance Auditing, Assessment, and Improvement Activity
  • Types of maintenance
  • Computerised maintenance, operation and systems
  • Station/Machinery/Equipment
  • Checklist - Mill Audit
  • Problem Identification
  • Corrective Actions
  • Case Studies